Discussion Papers
Recent Submissions

Errors in Variables and Panel Data: The Labour Demand Response to Permanent changes in Output
(Discussion papers;125, Working paper, 199408)This paper examines panel data modelling with latent variables in analyzing loglinear relations between inputs and output of firms. Our particular focus is on (i) the "increasing returns to scale puzzle" for labour input ... 
R&D, Scope Economies and Company Structure. A "NotsoFixed Effect" Model of Plant Performance
(Discussion papers;120, Working paper, 199406)Some wellknown correlations between R&D and performance are given a somewhat new interpretation in this paper. I present an alternative model of knowledge accumulation, with some interesting and desirable properties. ... 
Do Norwegian Firms Form Extrapolative Expectations?
(Discussion papers;126, Working paper, 199409)The hypothesis of extrapolative expectations is tested directly using Norwegian microeconomic data on firms' expectations of the prices of own products in domestic and export markets and expectations of demand for own ... 
The Inconsistency of Common Scales Estimators when Output Prices are Unobserved and Endogenous
(Discussion papers;127, Working paper, 199410)This paper explores the inconsistency of common scale estimators when output is proxied by deflated sales, based on a common output deflator across firms. The problems arise when firms operate in an imperfectly competitive ... 
A Generalization of Hall's Specification of the Consumption function
(Discussion papers;121, Working paper, 199407)This paper deals with optimal consumption over time. The starting point is a dynamic utility function which is exponential where the exponent is quadratic in the observable consumption outlays. The approach is shown to be ... 
On Equity and Public Pricing in Developing Countries
(Discussion papers;123, Working paper, 199408)With address to developing countries, this paper derives some formulae for the optimal price structure for publicly provided private goods. A general equilibrium model is examined, which makes it possible to incorporate ... 
Testing Rational Expectations in Vector Autoregressive Models
(Discussion papers;129, Working paper, 199410)Assuming that the solutions of a set of restrictions on the rational expectations of future values can be represented as a vector autoregressive model, we study the implied restrictions on the coefficients. Nonstationary ... 
Testing for market power in the Norwegian primary aluminium industry
(Discussion papers;132, Working paper, 100411)The hypothesis of market power in the Norwegian primary aluminium industry is tested using plantlevel panel data. Economies of scale are found to be present, and Norwegian aluminium plants charge a procyclical pricecost ... 
The distributional impact of the Norwegian tax reform measured by disproportionality
(Discussion papers;146, Working paper, 199506)This paper focuses on the measurement of progressivity and the distributional effect of the Norwegian tax reform of 1992. Progressivity is measured by the degree of disproportionality, which implies that the burden of taxes ... 
A dynamic equilibrium analysis of a carbon tax
(Discussion papers;145, Working paper, 199506)This paper analyses the effects of a carbon tax on a small open petroleum producing economy, using an aggregate intertemporal general equilibrium model with differentiated products. The long run effects on welfare and ... 
On the simultaneous determination of current expenditure, real capital, fee income, and public debt in Norwegian local government
(Discussion papers;153, Working paper, 199508)An extended community preference model including real and financial investments is estimated on accounting timeseries data for the local public sector in Norway. The estimation results indicate considerable sluggishness ... 
Adjusting NNP for instrumental or defensive expenitures: an analytical approach
(Discussion papers;134, Working paper, 199412)In this paper we provide a formal analysis to evaluate the subtraction of defensive expenditures from GDP. We consider expenditures that are used to produce nonmarket goods as candidates for being subtracted from GDP. It ... 
Probabilistic choice models for uncertain outcomes
(Discussion papers;141, Working paper, 199502) 
Some issues about the Norwegian capital income: imputation model
(Discussion papers;155, Working paper, 199510)This paper will focus on a particular provision in the Norwegian tax reform of 1992, the imputation of capital income for self employed and small incorporated firms with active owners. A simple user cost model is derived, ... 
Is there a business cycle component in Norwegian macroeconomic quarterly time series?
(Discussion papers;140, Working paper, 199501)Some main Norwegian quarterly macroeconomic time series are decomposed into unobserved components within the framework of structural time series models using UCARIMA models. In the most general case we allow for a stationary ... 
Prospects for a common, deregulated Nordic electricity market
(Discussion papers;144, Working paper, 199506)Electricity markets have typically been regulated all over the world. In Europe, UK and Norway have begun to deregulate their electricity markets. Several more countries will probably join them in the near future, for ... 
A framework for estimating disequilibrium models with many markets
(Discussion papers;138, Working paper, 199502)This paper presents a framework for estimating nonWalrasian models with many markets based on the virtual price approach in Lee (1986). The paper discusses an open economy multimarket nonWalrasian model with many agents ... 
Forward and backward looking models for Norwegian export prices
(Discussion papers;152, Working paper, 199508)The Norwegian export price for an aggregated commodity is modelled assuming pricesetting behaviour. The focus is on the choice between backward and forward looking models. The dynamics is modelled according to three ... 
Maternal employment in Norway. A parityspecific analysis of the return to fulltime and parttime work after birth
(Discussion papers;142, Working paper, 199503)This paper analyzes the (reentry of Norwegian mothers into fulltime and parttime employment following the first and second birth. Based on theories of job search and human capital depreciation and appreciation a ... 
Monetary aspects of business cycles in Norway: an exploratory study based on historical data
(Discussion papers;131, Working paper, 199410)Based on the methodology developed by Hodrick & Prescott (1980), it is shown that monetary activity in Norway by no means obeys the cyclical pa tterns described by Lucas (1983). By constructing annual time series covering ...