A calibrated imputation method for secondary data analysis of survey data
Peer reviewed, Journal article
MetadataShow full item record
Original versionScandinavian Journal of Statistics. 2019, 1-17. 10.1111/sjos.12435
In practical survey sampling, missing data are unavoidable due to nonresponse, rejected observations by editing, disclosure control, or outlier suppression. We propose a calibrated imputation approach so that valid point and variance estimates of the population (or domain) totals can be computed by the secondary users using simple complete‐sample formulae. This is especially helpful for variance estimation, which generally require additional information and tools that are unavailable to the secondary users. Our approach is natural for continuous variables, where the estimation may be either based on reweighting or imputation, including possibly their outlier‐robust extensions. We also propose a multivariate procedure to accommodate the estimation of the covariance matrix between estimated population totals, which facilitates variance estimation of the ratios or differences among the estimated totals. We illustrate the proposed approach using simulation data in supplementary materials that are available online.